The commonly held hypothesis that antibiotic resistance arises through (over)exposure to antibiotics is questioned in this new research. It weakens the link between resistance and antibiotic use and suggests that ”… antibiotic resistance is natural, ancient, and hard wired in the microbial pangenome.” This has implications for how we think about R&D around antibiotics and how [...]
The commonly held hypothesis that antibiotic resistance arises through (over)exposure to antibiotics is questioned in this new research. It weakens the link between resistance and antibiotic use and suggests that ”… antibiotic resistance is natural, ancient, and hard wired in the microbial pangenome.” This has implications for how we think about R&D around antibiotics and how public and private resources are spent to combat antibiotic resistance.
The abstract and link to the paper follows below, and here is a link to news coverage on the topic.
Antibiotic resistance is a global challenge that impacts all pharmaceutically used antibiotics. The origin of the genes associated with this resistance is of significant importance to our understanding of the evolution and dissemination of antibiotic resistance in pathogens. A growing body of evidence implicates environmental organisms as reservoirs of these resistance genes; however, the role of anthropogenic use of antibiotics in the emergence of these genes is controversial. We report a screen of a sample of the culturable microbiome of Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, in a region of the cave that has been isolated for over 4 million years. We report that, like surface microbes, these bacteria were highly resistant to antibiotics; some strains were resistant to 14 different commercially available antibiotics. Resistance was detected to a wide range of structurally different antibiotics including daptomycin, an antibiotic of last resort in the treatment of drug resistant Gram-positive pathogens. Enzyme-mediated mechanisms of resistance were also discovered for natural and semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotics via glycosylation and through a kinase-mediated phosphorylation mechanism. Sequencing of the genome of one of the resistant bacteria identified a macrolide kinase encoding gene and characterization of its product revealed it to be related to a known family of kinases circulating in modern drug resistant pathogens. The implications of this study are significant to our understanding of the prevalence of resistance, even in microbiomes isolated from human use of antibiotics. This supports a growing understanding that antibiotic resistance is natural, ancient, and hard wired in the microbial pangenome.
Science Technology & Society, Vol. 15, No. 1, 77-111 (2010)
This article seeks to present the main characteristics of Research and Development (R&D) in developing countries using mainly available R&D statistics and to draw some implications for the Frascati Manual methodologies and its application. The main characteristics presented include trends [...]
Science Technology & Society, Vol. 15, No. 1, 77-111 (2010)
This article seeks to present the main characteristics of Research and Development (R&D) in developing countries using mainly available R&D statistics and to draw some implications for the Frascati Manual methodologies and its application. The main characteristics presented include trends and concentrations, relative share of Highly Qualified Skills (HQS) abroad, R&D expenditures, impact factor and the relative importance of international collaboration. R&D statistics in developing countries are still scarce, particularly in Africa. Furthermore, they may not fully explain the characteristics of R&D in developing countries, for example, the dynamics of R&D systems, R&D practices, informal behaviours and contributions, just to mention a few. It is, therefore, argued that beyond indicators, there is a need for complementary surveys to derive, inter alia, descriptors and narratives. In the concluding part, the particular characteristics of R&D in developing countries and the resulting consequences for R&D measurement are discussed, focusing on implications and recommendations, in view of a possible addition and/or future revision of the Frascati Manual.
French multinational pharmaceutical company Sanofi-Aventis on Tuesday opened its first regional research and development center in China, the Shanghai Daily reported. The company expects that the Asia-Pacific R&D center will accelerate the development of therapies and health solutions in the region, said Marc Cluzel, vice president of research and development. Sales in emerging markets such [...]
French multinational pharmaceutical company Sanofi-Aventis on Tuesday opened its first regional research and development center in China, the Shanghai Daily reported. The company expects that the Asia-Pacific R&D center will accelerate the development of therapies and health solutions in the region, said Marc Cluzel, vice president of research and development. Sales in emerging markets such as China, Russia, South Korea and India will account for around one-third of the drug maker’s total sales income in the next few years, said Cluzel. “We hope to become the first multinational drug company that completes truly home-grown research activities and will cooperate with local partners,” said Thomas Kelly, vice president of the company’s China operations.
Pfizer has announced to initiate with more research work on Asian populations in coming years in a bid to develop drugs for diseases prevalent in the region, such as cancers of the liver and head and neck. “Prevalence rates for specific types of cancer are significantly higher (in Asia), for example gastric cancer, liver cancer, [...]
Pfizer has announced to initiate with more research work on Asian populations in coming years in a bid to develop drugs for diseases prevalent in the region, such as cancers of the liver and head and neck. “Prevalence rates for specific types of cancer are significantly higher (in Asia), for example gastric cancer, liver cancer, and head and neck cancer, probably due to factors such as diet, environment and genetics”, Steve Yang, Head of Pfizer’s R&D in Asia, said at a press briefing. The company’s research and development (R&D) executives in Singapore uncovered that the clinical research unit in Singapore, possessing a volunteer list of 14,000 healthy individuals – would be utilized as a base for Asia-specific research. It is revealed that Pfizer initiated with the research work in Asia almost 3-1/2 years ago and its Singapore research unit ranks itself among the three worldwide – the other two being Brussels in Belgium and Connecticut in the United States. This week, the company revealed its conglomeration with MicuRx Pharmaceuticals Inc. and China-based Cumencor Pharmaceuticals mainly to design new drugs to combat drug-resistant tuberculosis, or TB strains that are resistant at least to isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most powerful anti-TB drugs.
Australian pharmaceutical firms assert that the proposed legislation will “deter innovation and investment”. They’ll be required to fund the activities of the PBAC which should be seen just as another tax on their bottom line. It seems evident that this would translate into higher prices for consumers, but that is unlikely in the context of significant downward pressure on medicine prices. The Australian government have balanced the proposed legislation with very generous tax credits for R&D. The message is, pharmaceutical firms will be rewarded if they contribute significant innovation to the health care sector and in such circumstance funding the PBAC will be a drop in the ocean compared to the revenue the firm will generate. The others, well, will need to find ways to improve their efficiency.
Australian pharma forced to fund govt drugs panel
by: Lynne Taylor
Australia’s new federal budget, announced on Tuesday, reintroduces legislation which will require the drug industry to fund the government’s Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC).
The announcement has been condemned by Ian Chalmers, chief executive of industry group Medicines Australia, who warned that it would put at risk access to medicines for small patient-population groups.
It is fundamentally inappropriate for the industry to pay for government procurement decision-making, said Mr Chalmers. The procurement of pharmaceuticals for the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) is a government function and it’s unreasonable for industry to be expected to pay for the business of government.
In addition, he said that the decision risks Australian patients access to medicines, it does not improve the expensive and lengthy process for PBS listing of new medicines and it deters innovation and investment in the Australian pharmaceutical industry.
Other measures in the budget reduce the government’s investment in the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), requiring drugmakers to cut the prices of products included in the Scheme by $175 million over five years. Mr Chalmers forces that this will likely result in declining revenues and job losses.
Moreover, the budget’s failure to provide budgetary support for the recommendations made earlier this year by the Pharmaceutical Industry Strategy Group (PISG) for increasing investment in pharmaceutical R&D, clinical trials and manufacturing in the country over the next decade is â€œextremely disappointing, he said.
This will be the first time for 21 years that there will be no dedicated industry support programme to promote investment in this valuable knowledge-based industry. The PISG proposals were part of the solution to the current crisis, said Mr Chalmers.
However, he did welcome the measure introduced in the budget to replace the current R&D tax concession with a 40% R&D tax credit for companies with revenues over A$20 million. For most Medicines Australia member companies, the new credit will be equivalent to a 133% concession and, significantly, will be open to foreign-owned companies.
The tax credit is decoupled from the corporate tax rate and therefore creates certainty in the level of assistance, said Mr Chalmers.
The budget also provides new 45% refundable tax credits for R&D for companies with annual turnover of under A$20million, and these were described as a well-earned win for biotech and small innovative companies by Anna Lavelle, chief executive of Australia’s biotechnology organisation, AusBiotech. The credits, which will be equivalent in benefit to a 150% tax concession, will be a â€œbig boost to help those innovative companies which are at the heart of our economic recovery effort, she said.
Article available here: www.pharmatimes.com/WorldNews/article.aspx?id=15849&src=WorldNewsRSS
GE is clearly committed to healthcare – big spend in R&D to develop affordable and quality products and services. It will be very interesting to see what they have in their pipeline. GE’s investment will increase competition within the industry and undoubtedly pressure other medical device manufacturers to reshape their business models.
GE’s Healthymagination initiative to provide new solutionscto health care
by: Amit Pathania
As a part of its extensive marketing and business endeavor, pertaining to its $17 billion-per-year health equipment and technology business, General Electric Co. (GE) has worked out a strategy for providing new solutions to health care – by the way of its recently-launched initiative called “Healthymagination.”
For the new venture, GE has earmarked an amount of $6 billion till 2015. Of this amount, a $1.2-billion spending is earmarked for health-care research and development over the six-year period; and $3 billion for the development of nearly 100 health-care products and services that will not only be economical and easily accessible, but would also improve the quality of health care.
Read the full article here: topnews.us/content/25163-ge-s-healthymagination-initiative-provide-new-solutions-health-care
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